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-   -   Learning about space (learn how to read the outerspace) (http://www.copts.net/forum/showthread.php?t=3120)

amoni 21-05-2004 07:15 PM

Learning about space (learn how to read the outerspace)
 
[CENTER]In the name of the Father and the son and the holly spirit
One God
Amen[/CENTER]

Thanks so much
1. the black holes (introduction to black holes)
Black holes are extremely compact space objects that were once massive stars which collapsed inward due to the force of their own gravity. Take a journey into a black hole through a quick time movie or research Einstein's Theory of Relativity using this list of exciting resources.

more simple answer or defination
black hole is defined by the escape velocity that would have to be attained to escape from the gravitational pull exerted upon an object. For example, the escape velocity of earth is equal to 11 km/s. Anything that wants to escape earth's gravitational pull must go at least 11 km/s, no matter what the thing is — a rocket ship or a baseball. The escape velocity of an object depends on how compact it is; that is, the ratio of its mass to radius. A black hole is an object so compact that, within a certain distance of it, even the speed of light is not fast enough to escape.

A common type of black hole is the type produced by some dying stars. A star with a mass greater than 20 times the mass of our Sun may produce a black hole at the end of its life. In the normal life of a star there is a constant tug of war between gravity pulling in and pressure pushing out. Nuclear reactions in the core of the star produce enough energy to push outward. For most of a star's life, gravity and pressure balance each other exactly, and so the star is stable. However, when a star runs out of nuclear fuel, gravity gets the upper hand and the material in the core is compressed even further. The more massive the core of the star, the greater the force of gravity that compresses the material, collapsing it under its own weight. For small stars, when the nuclear fuel is exhausted and there are no more nuclear reactions to fight gravity, the repulsive forces among electrons within the star eventually create enough pressure to halt further gravitational collapse. The star then cools and dies peacefully. This type of star is called the "white dwarf." When a very massive star exhausts its nuclear fuel it explodes as a supernova. The outer parts of the star are expelled violently into space, while the core completely collapses under its own weight.

To create a massive core a progenitor (ancestral) star would need to be at least 20 times more massive than our Sun. If the core is very massive (approximately 2.5 times more massive than the Sun), no known repulsive force inside a star can push back hard enough to prevent gravity from completely collapsing the core into a black hole. Then the core compacts into a mathematical point with virtually zero volume, where it is said to have infinite density. This is referred to as a singularity. When this happens, escape would require a velocity greater than the speed of light. No object can reach the speed of light. The distance from the black hole at which the escape velocity is just equal to the speed of light is called the event horizon. Anything, including light, that passes across the event horizon toward the black hole is forever trapped.

Newton thought that only objects with mass could produce a gravitational force on each other. Applying Newton's theory of gravity, one would conclude that since light has no mass, the force of gravity couldn't affect it. Einstein discovered that the situation is a bit more complicated than that. First he discovered that gravity is produced by a curved space-time. Then Einstein theorized that the mass and radius of an object (its compactness) actually curves space-time. Mass is linked to space in a way that physicists today still do not completely understand. However, we know that the stronger the gravitational field of an object, the more the space around the object is curved. In other words, straight lines are no longer straight if exposed to a strong gravitational field; instead, they are curved. Since light ordinarily travels on a straight-line path, light follows a curved path if it passes through a strong gravitational field. This is what is meant by "curved space," and this is why light becomes trapped in a black hole. In the 1920's Sir Arthur Eddington proved Einstein's theory when he observed starlight curve when it traveled close to the Sun. This was the first successful prediction of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.

One way to picture this effect of gravity is to imagine a piece of rubber sheeting stretched out. Imagine that you put a heavy ball in the center of the sheet. The weight of the ball will bend the surface of the sheet close to it. This is a two-dimensional picture of what gravity does to space in three dimensions. Now take a little marble and send it rolling from one side of the rubber sheet to the other. Instead of the marble taking a straight path to the other side of the sheet, it will follow the contour of the sheet that is curved by the weight of the ball in the center. This is similar to how the gravitation field created by an object (the ball) affects light (the marble).

A black hole itself is invisible because no light can escape from it. In fact, when black holes were first hypothesized they were called "invisible stars." If black holes are invisible, how do we know they exist? This is exactly why it is so difficult to find a black hole in space! However, a black hole can be found indirectly by observing its effect on the stars and gas close to it. For example, consider a double-star system in which the stars are very close. If one of the stars explodes as a supernova and creates a black hole, gas and dust from the companion star might be pulled toward the black hole if the companion wanders too close. In that case, the gas and dust are pulled toward the black hole and begin to orbit around the event horizon and then orbit the black hole. The gas becomes heavily compressed and the friction that develops among the atoms converts the kinetic energy of the gas and dust into heat, and x-rays are emitted. Using the radiation coming from the orbiting material, scientists can measure its heat and speed. From the motion and heat of the circulating matter, we can infer the presence of a black hole. The hot matter swirling near the event horizon of a black hole is called an accretion disk.

amoni 21-05-2004 07:16 PM

Only stars with very large masses can become black holes. Our Sun, for example, is not massive enough to become a black hole. Four billion years from now when the Sun runs out of the available nuclear fuel in its core, our Sun will die a quiet death. Stars of this type end their history as white dwarf stars. More massive stars, such as those with masses of over 20 times our Sun's mass, may eventually create a black hole. When a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel it can no longer sustain its own weight and begins to collapse. When this occurs the star heats up and some fraction of its outer layer, which often still contains some fresh nuclear fuel, activates the nuclear reaction again and explodes in what is called a supernova. The remaining innermost fraction of the star, the core, continues to collapse. Depending on how massive the core is, it may become either a neutron star and stop the collapse or it may continue to collapse into a black hole. The dividing mass of the core, which determines its fate, is about 2.5 solar masses. It is thought that to produce a core of 2.5 solar masses the ancestral star should begin with over 20 solar masses. A black hole formed from a star is called a stellar black hole.

According to theory, there might be three types of black holes: stellar, supermassive, and miniature black holes — depending on their size. These black holes have also formed in different ways. Stellar black holes are described in Question 6. Supermassive black holes likely exist in the centers of most galaxies, including our own galaxy, the Milky Way. They can have a mass equivalent to billions of suns. In the outer parts of galaxies (where our solar system is located within the Milky Way) there are vast distances between stars. However, in the central region of galaxies, stars are packed very closely together. Because everything in the central region is tightly packed to start with, a black hole in the center of a galaxy can become more and more massive as stars orbiting the event horizon can ultimately be captured by gravitational attraction and add their mass to the black hole. By measuring the velocity of stars orbiting close to the center of a galaxy, we can infer the presence of a supermassive black hole and calculate its mass. Perpendicular to the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole, there are sometimes two jets of hot gas. These jets can be millions of light years in length. They are probably caused by the interaction of gas particles with strong, rotating magnetic fields surrounding the black hole. Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope have provided the best evidence to date that supermassive black holes exist.

The exact mechanisms that result in what are known as miniature black holes have not been precisely identified, but a number of hypotheses have been proposed. The basic idea is that miniature black holes might have been formed shortly after the "Big Bang," which is thought to have started the Universe about 15 billion years ago. Very early in the life of the Universe the rapid expansion of some matter might have compressed slower-moving matter enough to contract into black holes. Some scientists hypothesize that black holes can theoretically "evaporate" and explode. The time required for the "evaporation" would depend upon the mass of the black hole. Very massive black holes would need a time that is longer than the current accepted age of the universe. Only miniature black holes are thought to be capable of evaporation within the existing time of our universe. For a black hole formed at the time of the "Big Bang" to evaporate today its mass must be about 1015g (i.e., about 2 trillion pounds), a little more than twice the mass of the current Homo sapien population on planet Earth. During the final phase of the "evaporation," such a black hole would explode with a force of several trillion times that of our most powerful nuclear weapon. So far, however, there is no observational evidence for miniature black holes.

That is as far as i got in those past three days, still the research is going, and going

shadino 22-05-2004 05:20 PM

thanks very much for these worthy information

god bless you

amoni 22-05-2004 06:30 PM

[QUOTE=shadino]thanks very much for these worthy information

god bless you[/QUOTE]


U welcome any time brother

but i was gona talk to u about how the black holes myths
some ppl think that every one is connnection with the life of every person
if u need to know more informations about it drop me a line

God bless you too
Mariam

New_ManII 22-05-2004 07:31 PM

marian, this is toooooooooooooooo much
i thought u were gonna summerize the topic to us, not to copy&paste a whole book over here :(((
:) but thanks anyway

amoni 23-05-2004 12:53 AM

[QUOTE=New_ManII]marian, this is toooooooooooooooo much
i thought u were gonna summerize the topic to us, not to copy&paste a whole book over here :(((
:) but thanks anyway[/QUOTE]


Thanks anyway NewMan

That is a very useful book of mine, and i use those books in my classes
God bless you
Mariam

New_ManII 23-05-2004 06:23 AM

thank you marian.
go on :)


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