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InnerPeace 04-03-2006 06:55 AM

Networking Terminology
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"]
[COLOR="Blue"][B] Virtual private network (VPN) [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page will explain what a VPN is and how it is used.[/COLOR]

A vitual private network (VPN) is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet. Using VPN, a telecommuter can remotely access the network of the company headquarters.

[CENTER][IMG]http://img234.imageshack.us/img234/6204/untitled9er.png[/IMG][/CENTER]

Through the Internet, a secure tunnel can be built between the PC of the telecommuter and a VPN router at the company headquarters.
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InnerPeace 04-03-2006 07:04 AM

Networking Terminology
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][B][COLOR="Blue"] Benefits of VPNs [/COLOR][/B]


[COLOR="Green"]This page will introduce the three main types of VPNs and explain how they work.[/COLOR]

A VPN is a service that offers [U]secure[/U], [U]reliable connectivity[/U] over a shared public network infrastructure such as the Internet. [U] VPNs maintain the same security and management policies as a private network[/U]. The use of a VPN is the most cost-effective way to establish a point-to-point connection between remote users and an enterprise network.

The following are the three main types of VPNs:

[COLOR="RoyalBlue"]Access VPNs[/COLOR] provide remote access for mobile and small office, home office (SOHO) users to an Intranet or Extranet over a shared infrastructure. Access VPNs use analog, dialup, ISDN, DSL, mobile IP, and cable technologies to securely connect mobile users, telecommuters, and branch offices.

[COLOR="RoyalBlue"]Intranet VPNs[/COLOR] use dedicated connections to link regional and remote offices to an internal network over a shared infrastructure. Intranet VPNs differ from Extranet VPNs in that they allow access only to the employees of the enterprise.

[COLOR="RoyalBlue"]Extranet VPNs[/COLOR] use dedicated connections to link business partners to an internal network over a shared infrastructure. Extranet VPNs differ from Intranet VPNs in that they allow access to users outside the enterprise. [/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 07:12 AM

Networking Terminology
 
[SIZE="4"][LEFT][B][COLOR="Blue"] Intranets and extranets [/COLOR][/B]


[COLOR="Green"]This page will teach you about intranets and extranets.[/COLOR]

One common configuration of a LAN is an intranet. Intranet Web servers differ from public Web servers in that the public must have the proper permissions and passwords to access the intranet of an organization. Intranets are designed to permit users who have access privileges to the internal LAN of the organization. Within an intranet, Web servers are installed in the network. Browser technology is used as the common front end to access information on servers such as financial, graphical, or text-based data.

Extranets refer to applications and services that are Intranet based, and use extended, secure access to external users or enterprises. This access is usually accomplished through passwords, user IDs, and other application-level security. An extranet is the extension of two or more intranet strategies with a secure interaction between participant enterprises and their respective intranets.
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InnerPeace 04-03-2006 07:28 AM

Bandwidth
 
[CENTER][FONT="Impact"][SIZE="5"][COLOR="Red"]Bandwidth [/COLOR][/SIZE][/FONT][/CENTER]
[LEFT][SIZE="4"]
[COLOR="Blue"][B]Importance of bandwidth [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page will describe the four most important characteristics of bandwidth.[/COLOR]

Bandwidth is defined as [U]the amount of information that can flow through a network connection in a given period of time[/U]. It is important to understand the concept of bandwidth for the following reasons.

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Bandwidth is finite. Regardless of the media used to build a network, there are limits on the network capacity to carry information. Bandwidth is limited by the laws of physics and by the technologies used to place information on the media. For example, the bandwidth of a conventional modem is limited to about 56 kbps by both the physical properties of twisted-pair phone wires and by modem technology. DSL uses the same twisted-pair phone wires. However, DSL provides much more bandwidth than conventional modems. So, even the limits imposed by the laws of physics are sometimes difficult to define. Optical fiber has the physical potential to provide virtually limitless bandwidth. Even so, the bandwidth of optical fiber cannot be fully realized until technologies are developed to take full advantage of its potential.

Bandwidth is not free. It is possible to buy equipment for a LAN that will provide nearly unlimited bandwidth over a long period of time. For WAN connections, it is usually necessary to buy bandwidth from a service provider. In either case, individual users and businesses can save a lot of money if they understand bandwidth and how the demand will change over time. A network manager needs to make the right decisions about the kinds of equipment and services to buy.

Bandwidth is an important factor that is used to analyze network performance, design new networks, and understand the Internet. A networking professional must understand the tremendous impact of bandwidth and throughput on network performance and design. Information flows as a string of bits from computer to computer throughout the world. These bits represent massive amounts of information flowing back and forth across the globe in seconds or less.

The demand for bandwidth continues to grow. As soon as new network technologies and infrastructures are built to provide greater bandwidth, new applications are created to take advantage of the greater capacity. The delivery of rich media content such as streaming video and audio over a network requires tremendous amounts of bandwidth. IP telephony systems are now commonly installed in place of traditional voice systems, which further adds to the need for bandwidth. The successful networking professional must anticipate the need for increased bandwidth and act accordingly.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 07:45 AM

Bandwidth
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B]The desktop[/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page will present two analogies that may make it easier to visualize bandwidth in a network.[/COLOR]

Bandwidth has been defined as the amount of information that can flow through a network in a given time. The idea that information flows suggests two analogies that may make it easier to visualize bandwidth in a network.

Bandwidth is like the width of a pipe. A network of pipes brings fresh water to homes and businesses and carries waste water away. This water network is made up of pipes of different diameters. The main water pipes of a city may be 2 meters in diameter, while the pipe to a kitchen faucet may have a diameter of only 2 cm. The width of the pipe determines the water-carrying capacity of the pipe. Therefore, the water is like the data, and the pipe width is like the bandwidth. Many networking experts say that they need to put in bigger pipes when they wish to add more information-carrying capacity.

Bandwidth is like the number of lanes on a highway. A network of roads serves every city or town. Large highways with many traffic lanes are joined by smaller roads with fewer traffic lanes. These roads lead to narrower roads that lead to the driveways of homes and businesses. When very few automobiles use the highway system, each vehicle is able to move freely. When more traffic is added, each vehicle moves more slowly. This is especially true on roads with fewer lanes. As more traffic enters the highway system, even multi-lane highways become congested and slow. A data network is much like the highway system. The data packets are comparable to automobiles, and the bandwidth is comparable to the number of lanes on the highway. When a data network is viewed as a system of highways, it is easy to see how low bandwidth connections can cause traffic to become congested all over the network.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 07:50 AM

Bandwidth
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B] Measurement [/B][/COLOR]



[COLOR="Green"]This page will explain how bandwidth is measured. [/COLOR]

In digital systems,[U] the basic unit of bandwidth is bits per second (bps)[/U]. Bandwidth is the measure of how many bits of information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Although bandwidth can be described in bps, a larger unit of measurement is generally used. Network bandwidth is typically described as thousands of bits per second (kbps), millions of bits per second (Mbps), billions of bits per second (Gbps), and trillions of bits per second (Tbps). Although the terms bandwidth and speed are often used interchangeably, they are not exactly the same thing. One may say, for example, that a T3 connection at 45 Mbps operates at a higher speed than a T1 connection at 1.544 Mbps. However, if only a small amount of their data-carrying capacity is being used, each of these connection types will carry data at roughly the same speed. For example, a small amount of water will flow at the same rate through a small pipe as through a large pipe. Therefore, it is usually more accurate to say that a T3 connection has greater bandwidth than a T1 connection. This is because the T3 connection is able to carry more information in the same period of time, not because it has a higher speed.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 07:55 AM

Bandwidth
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B] Limitations [/B][/COLOR]

[COLOR="Green"]This page describes the limitations of bandwidth. [/COLOR]

Bandwidth varies [U]depending upon the type of media [/U]as well as the LAN and WAN technologies used. The physics of the media account for some of the difference. Signals travel through [U]twisted-pair copper wire, coaxial cable, optical fiber, and air[/U]. The physical differences in the ways signals travel result in fundamental limitations on the information-carrying capacity of a given medium. However, the actual bandwidth of a network is determined by a combination of the physical media and the technologies chosen for signaling and detecting network signals.

For example, current information about the physics of unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) copper cable puts the theoretical bandwidth limit at over 1 Gbps. However, in actual practice, the bandwidth is determined by the use of 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, or 1000BASE-TX Ethernet. The [U]actual bandwidth is determined by the signaling methods, NICs, and other network equipment that is chosen[/U]. Therefore, the bandwidth is not determined solely by the limitations of the medium. [/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 08:01 AM

Bandwidth
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][B][COLOR="Blue"] Throughput [/COLOR][/B]

[COLOR="Green"]This page explains the concept of throughput.[/COLOR]

Bandwidth is the measure of the amount of information that can move through the network in a given period of time. Therefore, the amount of available bandwidth is a critical part of the specification of the network. A typical LAN might be built to provide 100 Mbps to every desktop workstation, but this does not mean that each user is actually able to move 100 megabits of data through the network for every second of use. This would be true only under the most ideal circumstances.

[U]Throughput[/U] refers to [U]actual measured bandwidth, at a specific time of day, using specific Internet routes, and while a specific set of data is transmitted on the network[/U]. Unfortunately, for many reasons, throughput is often far less than the maximum possible digital bandwidth of the medium that is being used. The following are some of the factors that determine throughput:

[U]Internetworking devices
Type of data being transferred
Network topology
Number of users on the network
User computer
Server computer
Power conditions [/U]

The theoretical bandwidth of a network is an important consideration in network design, because the network bandwidth will never be greater than the limits imposed by the chosen media and networking technologies. However, it is just as important for a network designer and administrator to consider the factors that may affect actual throughput. By measuring throughput on a regular basis, a network administrator will be aware of changes in network performance and changes in the needs of network users. The network can then be adjusted accordingly.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 08:16 AM

Bandwidth
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B]Data transfer calculation [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page provides the formula for data transfer calculation. [/COLOR]

Network designers and administrators are often called upon to make decisions regarding bandwidth. One decision might be whether to increase the size of the WAN connection to accommodate a new database. Another decision might be whether the current LAN backbone is of sufficient bandwidth for a streaming-video training program. The answers to problems like these are not always easy to find, but one place to start is with a simple data transfer calculation.

Using the [COLOR="DarkOrchid"]formula transfer time = size of file / bandwidth [/COLOR](T=S/BW) allows a network administrator to estimate several of the important components of network performance. If the typical file size for a given application is known, dividing the file size by the network bandwidth yields an estimate of the fastest time that the file can be transferred.

Two important points should be considered when doing this calculation.

The result is an estimate only, because the file size does not include any overhead added by encapsulation.
The result is likely to be a best-case transfer time, because available bandwidth is almost never at the theoretical maximum for the network type. A more accurate estimate can be attained if throughput is substituted for bandwidth in the equation.

Although the data transfer calculation is quite simple, one must be careful to use the same units throughout the equation. In other words, if the bandwidth is measured in megabits per second (Mbps), the file size must be in megabits (Mb), not megabytes (MB). Since file sizes are typically given in megabytes, it may be necessary to multiply the number of megabytes by eight to convert to megabits. [/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 04-03-2006 08:30 AM

Bandwidth
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B] Digital versus analog [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page will explain the differences between analog and digital signals. [/COLOR]

Radio, television, and telephone transmissions have, until recently, been sent through the air and over wires using electromagnetic waves. These waves are called analog because they have the same shapes as the light and sound waves produced by the transmitters. As light and sound waves change size and shape, the electrical signal that carries the transmission changes proportionately. In other words, the electromagnetic waves are analogous to the light and sound waves.

[U]Analog bandwidth is measured by how much of the electromagnetic spectrum is occupied by each signal[/U]. The[U] basic unit of analog bandwidth is hertz (Hz), or cycles per second[/U]. Typically, multiples of this basic unit of analog bandwidth are used, just as with digital bandwidth. Units of measurement that are commonly seen are kilohertz (KHz), megahertz (MHz), and gigahertz (GHz). These are the units used to describe the frequency of cordless telephones, which usually operate at either 900 MHz or 2.4 GHz. These are also the units used to describe the frequencies of 802.11a and 802.11b wireless networks, which operate at 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz.

While analog signals are capable of carrying a variety of information, they have some significant disadvantages in comparison to digital transmissions. The analog video signal that requires a wide frequency range for transmission cannot be squeezed into a smaller band. Therefore, if the necessary analog bandwidth is not available, the signal cannot be sent.

In digital signaling all information is sent as bits, regardless of the kind of information it is.[U] Voice, video, and data all become streams of bits when they are prepared for transmission over digital media[/U]. This type of transmission gives digital bandwidth an important advantage over analog bandwidth. Unlimited amounts of information can be sent over the smallest or lowest bandwidth digital channel. Regardless of how long it takes for the digital information to arrive at its destination and be reassembled, it can be viewed, listened to, read, or processed in its original form.

It is important to understand the differences and similarities between digital and analog bandwidth. Both types of bandwidth are regularly encountered in the field of information technology. However, because this course is concerned primarily with digital networking, the term ‘bandwidth’ will refer to digital bandwidth.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 05-03-2006 04:31 AM

Networking Models
 
[CENTER][SIZE="6"][FONT="Impact"][COLOR="Red"]Networking Models[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/CENTER]
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B]Using layers to analyze problems in a flow of materials [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page explains how layers are used to describe communications between computers.[/COLOR]

The concept of layers is used to describe communication from one computer to another.
[CENTER][IMG]http://img145.imageshack.us/img145/7197/untitled7vt.png[/IMG][/CENTER]
Figure shows a set of questions that are related to flow, which is defined as the motion through a system of either physical or logical objects. These questions show how the concept of layers helps describe the details of the flow process. This process could be any kind of flow, from the flow of traffic on a highway system to the flow of data through a network.
[CENTER][IMG]http://img149.imageshack.us/img149/3484/untitled2tx.png[/IMG][/CENTER]
Figure shows several examples of flow and ways that the flow process can be broken down into details or layers.

A conversation between two people provides a good opportunity to use a layered approach to analyze information flow. In a conversation, each person wishing to communicate begins by creating an idea. Then a decision is made on how to properly communicate the idea. For example, a person could decide to speak, sing or shout, and what language to use. Finally the idea is delivered. For example, the person creates the sound which carries the message.

This process can be broken into separate layers that may be applied to all conversations. The top layer is the idea that will be communicated. The middle layer is the decision on how the idea is to be communicated. The bottom layer is the creation of sound to carry the communication.

The same method of layering explains how a computer network distributes information from a source to a destination. When computers send information through a network, all communications originate at a source then travel to a destination.

The information that travels on a network is generally referred to as data or a packet. A packet is a logically grouped unit of information that moves between computer systems. As the data passes between layers, each layer adds additional information that enables effective communication with the corresponding layer on the other computer.

The OSI and TCP/IP models have layers that explain how data is communicated from one computer to another. The models differ in the number and function of the layers. However, each model can be used to help describe and provide details about the flow of information from a source to a destination.


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InnerPeace 05-03-2006 04:38 AM

Networking Models
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B]Using layers to describe data communication[/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page describes the importance of layers in data communication. [/COLOR]

In order for data packets to travel from a source to a destination on a network, it is important that [U]all the devices on the network speak the same language or protocol[/U]. A protocol is a set of rules that make communication on a network more efficient. For example, while flying an airplane, pilots obey very specific rules for communication with other airplanes and with air traffic control.

[U]A data communications protocol is a set of rules or an agreement that determines the format and transmission of data. [/U]

Layer 4 on the source computer communicates with Layer 4 on the destination computer. The rules and conventions used for this layer are known as Layer 4 protocols. It is important to remember that protocols prepare data in a linear fashion. A protocol in one layer performs a certain set of operations on data as [U]it prepares the data to be sent over the network[/U]. The data is then passed to the next layer where another protocol performs a different set of operations.

Once the packet has been sent to the destination, the protocols undo the construction of the packet that was done on the source side. This is done in reverse order. The protocols for each layer on the destination return the information to its original form, so the application can properly read the data.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 05-03-2006 04:47 AM

Networking Models
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B] OSI model [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page discusses how and why the OSI model was developed. [/COLOR]

The early development of networks was disorganized in many ways. The early 1980s saw tremendous increases in the number and size of networks. As companies realized the advantages of using networking technology, networks were added or expanded almost as rapidly as new network technologies were introduced.

By the mid-1980s, these companies began to experience problems from the rapid expansion. Just as people who do not speak the same language have difficulty communicating with each other, it was difficult for networks that used different specifications and implementations to exchange information. The same problem occurred with the companies that developed private or proprietary networking technologies. Proprietary means that one or a small group of companies controls all usage of the technology. Networking technologies strictly following proprietary rules could not communicate with technologies that followed different proprietary rules.

To address the problem of network incompatibility, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched networking models like Digital Equipment Corporation net (DECnet), Systems Network Architecture (SNA), and TCP/IP in order to find a generally applicable set of rules for all networks. Using this research, the ISO created a network model that helps vendors create networks that are compatible with other networks.

The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model released in 1984 was the de******ive network model that the ISO created. It provided vendors with a set of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability among various network technologies produced by companies around the world.
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The OSI reference model has become the primary model for network communications. Although there are other models in existence, most network vendors relate their products to the OSI reference model. This is especially true when they want to educate users on the use of their products. It is considered the best tool available for teaching people about sending and receiving data on a network.[/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 05-03-2006 05:17 AM

Networking Models
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B]OSI layers [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page discusses the seven layers of the OSI model.[/COLOR]

[U]The OSI reference model is a framework that is used to understand how information travels throughout a network[/U]. The OSI reference model explains how packets travel through the various layers to another device on a network, even if the sender and destination have different types of network media.

In the OSI reference model, there are seven numbered layers, each of which illustrates a particular network function.
[CENTER][IMG]http://img226.imageshack.us/img226/6910/untitled2pi.png[/IMG][/CENTER]
Dividing the network into seven layers provides the following advantages:

It breaks network communication into smaller, more manageable parts.
It standardizes network components to allow multiple vendor development and support.
It allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other.
It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers.
It divides network communication into smaller parts to make learning it easier to understand. [/SIZE][/LEFT]

InnerPeace 05-03-2006 05:33 AM

Networking Models
 
[LEFT][SIZE="4"][COLOR="Blue"][B] Peer-to-peer communications [/B][/COLOR]


[COLOR="Green"]This page explains the concept of peer-to-peer communications. [/COLOR]

In order for data to travel from the source to the destination, each layer of the OSI model at the source must communicate with its peer layer at the destination. This form of communication is referred to as peer-to-peer. During this process, the protocols of each layer exchange information, called protocol data units (PDUs). Each layer of communication on the source computer communicates with a layer-specific PDU, and with its peer layer on the destination computer .

Data packets on a network originate at a source and then travel to a destination. Each layer depends on the service function of the OSI layer below it. To provide this service, the lower layer uses encapsulation to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field. Then it adds whatever headers and trailers the layer needs to perform its function. Next, as the data moves down through the layers of the OSI model, additional headers and trailers are added. After Layers 7, 6, and 5 have added their information, Layer 4 adds more information. This grouping of data, the Layer 4 PDU, is called a segment.
[CENTER][IMG]http://img104.imageshack.us/img104/9584/untitled8ne.png[/IMG][/CENTER]

The network layer provides a service to the transport layer, and the transport layer presents data to the internetwork subsystem. The network layer has the task of moving the data through the internetwork. It accomplishes this task by encapsulating the data and attaching a header creating a packet (the Layer 3 PDU). The header contains information required to complete the transfer, such as source and destination logical addresses.

The data link layer provides a service to the network layer. It encapsulates the network layer information in a frame (the Layer 2 PDU). The frame header contains information (for example, physical addresses) required to complete the data link functions. The data link layer provides a service to the network layer by encapsulating the network layer information in a frame.

The physical layer also provides a service to the data link layer. The physical layer encodes the data link frame into a pattern of 1s and 0s (bits) for transmission on the medium (usually a wire) at Layer 1.[/SIZE][/LEFT]


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