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منتدى العلوم والتكنولوجيا يهتم هذا القسم بالانترنت و بالبرمجة والكمبيوتر و الموبايلات,معلومات عامة ..إستشارات ..كل ما هو جديد بالتكنولوجيا .....الخ

 
 
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قديم 21-05-2004
الصورة الرمزية لـ amoni
amoni amoni غير متصل
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تاريخ التّسجيل: Nov 2003
الإقامة: في قلب مسيحي
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amoni is on a distinguished road
Learning about space (learn how to read the outerspace)

In the name of the Father and the son and the holly spirit
One God
Amen

Thanks so much
1. the black holes (introduction to black holes)
Black holes are extremely compact space objects that were once massive stars which collapsed inward due to the force of their own gravity. Take a journey into a black hole through a quick time movie or research Einstein's Theory of Relativity using this list of exciting resources.

more simple answer or defination
black hole is defined by the escape velocity that would have to be attained to escape from the gravitational pull exerted upon an object. For example, the escape velocity of earth is equal to 11 km/s. Anything that wants to escape earth's gravitational pull must go at least 11 km/s, no matter what the thing is — a rocket ship or a baseball. The escape velocity of an object depends on how compact it is; that is, the ratio of its mass to radius. A black hole is an object so compact that, within a certain distance of it, even the speed of light is not fast enough to escape.

A common type of black hole is the type produced by some dying stars. A star with a mass greater than 20 times the mass of our Sun may produce a black hole at the end of its life. In the normal life of a star there is a constant tug of war between gravity pulling in and pressure pushing out. Nuclear reactions in the core of the star produce enough energy to push outward. For most of a star's life, gravity and pressure balance each other exactly, and so the star is stable. However, when a star runs out of nuclear fuel, gravity gets the upper hand and the material in the core is compressed even further. The more massive the core of the star, the greater the force of gravity that compresses the material, collapsing it under its own weight. For small stars, when the nuclear fuel is exhausted and there are no more nuclear reactions to fight gravity, the repulsive forces among electrons within the star eventually create enough pressure to halt further gravitational collapse. The star then cools and dies peacefully. This type of star is called the "white dwarf." When a very massive star exhausts its nuclear fuel it explodes as a supernova. The outer parts of the star are expelled violently into space, while the core completely collapses under its own weight.

To create a massive core a progenitor (ancestral) star would need to be at least 20 times more massive than our Sun. If the core is very massive (approximately 2.5 times more massive than the Sun), no known repulsive force inside a star can push back hard enough to prevent gravity from completely collapsing the core into a black hole. Then the core compacts into a mathematical point with virtually zero volume, where it is said to have infinite density. This is referred to as a singularity. When this happens, escape would require a velocity greater than the speed of light. No object can reach the speed of light. The distance from the black hole at which the escape velocity is just equal to the speed of light is called the event horizon. Anything, including light, that passes across the event horizon toward the black hole is forever trapped.

Newton thought that only objects with mass could produce a gravitational force on each other. Applying Newton's theory of gravity, one would conclude that since light has no mass, the force of gravity couldn't affect it. Einstein discovered that the situation is a bit more complicated than that. First he discovered that gravity is produced by a curved space-time. Then Einstein theorized that the mass and radius of an object (its compactness) actually curves space-time. Mass is linked to space in a way that physicists today still do not completely understand. However, we know that the stronger the gravitational field of an object, the more the space around the object is curved. In other words, straight lines are no longer straight if exposed to a strong gravitational field; instead, they are curved. Since light ordinarily travels on a straight-line path, light follows a curved path if it passes through a strong gravitational field. This is what is meant by "curved space," and this is why light becomes trapped in a black hole. In the 1920's Sir Arthur Eddington proved Einstein's theory when he observed starlight curve when it traveled close to the Sun. This was the first successful prediction of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.

One way to picture this effect of gravity is to imagine a piece of rubber sheeting stretched out. Imagine that you put a heavy ball in the center of the sheet. The weight of the ball will bend the surface of the sheet close to it. This is a two-dimensional picture of what gravity does to space in three dimensions. Now take a little marble and send it rolling from one side of the rubber sheet to the other. Instead of the marble taking a straight path to the other side of the sheet, it will follow the contour of the sheet that is curved by the weight of the ball in the center. This is similar to how the gravitation field created by an object (the ball) affects light (the marble).

A black hole itself is invisible because no light can escape from it. In fact, when black holes were first hypothesized they were called "invisible stars." If black holes are invisible, how do we know they exist? This is exactly why it is so difficult to find a black hole in space! However, a black hole can be found indirectly by observing its effect on the stars and gas close to it. For example, consider a double-star system in which the stars are very close. If one of the stars explodes as a supernova and creates a black hole, gas and dust from the companion star might be pulled toward the black hole if the companion wanders too close. In that case, the gas and dust are pulled toward the black hole and begin to orbit around the event horizon and then orbit the black hole. The gas becomes heavily compressed and the friction that develops among the atoms converts the kinetic energy of the gas and dust into heat, and x-rays are emitted. Using the radiation coming from the orbiting material, scientists can measure its heat and speed. From the motion and heat of the circulating matter, we can infer the presence of a black hole. The hot matter swirling near the event horizon of a black hole is called an accretion disk.
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